Social Science History: Society and Science History TimeLine

The lithostratigraphy of the latest Triassic to earliest Cretaceous of the English Channel and its adjacent areas. Published by the Geological Society of London. It is a substantial paper 61 pages long with 26 diagrams. It is very good with much information, including facies and thickness maps, diagrams showing sea-level changes etc. It is easily readable by anyone who already knows the general geological succession and zonal schemes of the Dorset Coast. Ainsworth, William Braham, F. The stratigraphy of the latest Triassic through to the earliest Cretaceous of the Portland – Wight Basin and its adjacent area may be subdivided using petrophysical gamma ray and interval transit time criteria, in association with gross lithology to allow a total of 50 lithological units to be recognised. Three units occur within the latest Triassic, 46 in the Jurassic and one in the earliest Cretaceous.

Petroleum Geology of Southern England Bibliography [Oil South Bibliography]

The abyss of time. Geochronology by radioactive decay. The geologic age of the Mississippi River.

Abstract. Within a more general study on marine sediments in the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), the Pb ex dating method (using a model with constant sedimentation rate) has been applied to one sediment core. The main goal of the research was to study the Pb pollution chronology.

One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water. The study found that water temperatures increased on average by 0. As of July , no similar study has been conducted on a global basis. The largest gap between any of the datasets in any year was 0. To determine whether 20th century warming is unusual, it is essential to place it in the context of longer-term climate variability. The report states that: So it is important to recognize that natural variations of climate are appreciable and will modulate any future changes induced by man.

This paper was based upon a paper by the same authors that appeared in the journal Nature. The visual accord between the red instrument-measured surface temperatures and the blue proxy-derived temperatures is the result of statistical operations, not concurring data. The shape appears in measures that show subordinate trends in the data.

Chilika Lake

Were Darwin’s Galapagos Finches Evolution? What does happen in a population as the genome reacts to the environment? Darwin looks at the finches on the Galapagos Islands and notices variations in beak size. He thought that the harder seed in the dry time was causing the beaks of the finches to grow stouter from the use of the part. But what was happening was that natural selection or a long term drought in the islands was causing the seed cases to harden.

The heavier beaked finch allele in the genome was favored and the lighter beaked finch allele was not.

A marine sediment core from the Kattegat area (Sweden) has been studied for dating purposes. The Cs and Pb profiles have been measured and described by a model of incomplete activity mixing. A time-dependent Cs flux function for the sediment has been constructed from atmospheric data and the Cs contents in water from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant.

Research in fundamental particle physics has culminated in our current Standard Model of elementary particles. Using ever larger machines, we have been able to identify and determine the properties of a whole zoo of elementary particles. These properties present many interesting patterns. All the matter we see around us is composed of electrons and up and down quarks, interacting differently with photons of electromagnetism, W and Z bosons of the weak force, gluons of the strong force, and gravity, according to their different values and kinds of charges.

Additionally, an interaction between a W and an electron produces an electron neutrino, and these neutrinos are now known to permeate space—flying through us in great quantities, interacting only weakly. A neutrino passing through the earth probably wouldn’t even notice it was there.

Glossary of Art Terms, J

Some sections of this work are incomplete but have been posted as is. They will be updated and queries resolved as time permits. Apart from files not yet complete, distribution maps, some figures and habitat photographs are the main items to be added. A question mark may appear in the text appended to items that need to be checked by me.

Numerous queries have led me to post incomplete material.

Abstract. Isoleucine has been found to undergo a slow racemization reaction in a 5-meter sediment core taken from the Atlantis fracture zone (water depth, meters; actual location, 30°’N, 43°’W).

An addendum to the Statement on Climate Change: Evidence from the Geological Record December The addendum is arranged such that some sections are unchanged from the original. For other sections additional information is provided, but this is not merged with the original content. Its is therefore not possible to read a single updated report. Those who want to read the full addendum should simply use the link provided above.

The Discussion in comments What I am soliciting in primary comments is informed opinion driven mainly by what data tells us, backed up by references to data sources. Primary comments may also take the form of questions. What I am not going to permit is social commentary and chit chat.

Cambrian explosion

The western and southern margins of the lake are fringed by the Eastern Ghats hill range. The lake has numerous islands. The larger islands, separated by shallow channels, lie between the barrier and the main body of the lake.

Marine sediment: Marine sediment, any deposit of insoluble material, primarily rock and soil particles, transported from land areas to the ocean by wind, ice, and rivers, as well as the remains of marine organisms, products of submarine volcanism, chemical precipitates from .

Article Abstract Pb geochronologies should be validated with independent tracers such as Cs. In the cases with constant Pb activity in the topmost sediments, the presence of a distinct Cs peak within the Pb plateau has been used as a definitive demonstration of acceleration increase in the sedimentation rate in recent years versus fast mixing. Nevertheless, some limitations can be identified in the use of semiquantitative arguments, and a global understanding of the whole Cs activity profile is then required.

Particularly, the incomplete mixing within the top sediment zone described through the Incomplete Mixing Zone model can explain quantitatively and simultaneously the Cs peak and the flattening in the Pb activity profile. This is demonstrated using selected examples from literature data. Nevertheless, they found 7Be only in the uppermost layer, the distinct Cs maximum at 6 cm depth, and undisturbed varves.

The fast mixing seemed then opposed to common sense. The constant rate of supply model shows acceleration and it adequately matches the position of the Cs peak. Nevertheless it fails to explain the whole Cs profile when handling time series of Cs atmospheric deposition. Finally, it is shown how the incomplete mixing of the activity through the pore water over a certain mass depth at the top sediment, with a finite value of the mixing coefficient, can quantitatively explain the whole activity versus mass depth profiles of Cs and Pb, and the presence of 7Be only in the uppermost sediment layer.

A further validation of these ideas is presented from other literature data. Dating of marine sediments by an incomplete mixing model. Google Scholar Appleby P. Dating recent sediments by Pb:

How Old is the Earth: Summary

These profiles can be useful to test dating models, understood as particular solutions of a general advection—diffusion problem, if the time series of radionuclide inputs into the sediment is provided. A simple water-column model was used for this purpose, involving atmospheric fallout, measured distribution coefficient k d values, and a first-estimate of sedimentation rates.

These results provide some insight into the fate of atmospheric inputs to this marine environment and, particularly, into the contribution from the Chernobyl accident. They also thank colleagues from INRH for their assistance during sampling.

Chapter Overview • Marine sediments contain a record of Earth history. • Marine sediments provide a variety of important resources. Marine Sediments. Title: Microsoft PowerPoint – ocean_Lecture_Chppt [Compatibility Mode] Author: Patrick P Created Date.

Protect Corals, Fish and Whales From Ocean Acidification April 4, , Center for Biological Diversity Without swift, national action to protect the ocean’s vast diversity of life from acidifying waters corals, shellfish, salmon and a whole host of beautiful creatures will be lost. We need your help to ask President Barack Obama and the Environmental Protection Agency to get working on a bold plan to curb ocean acidification. Carbon dioxide pollution is also being absorbed by the ocean, causing its chemistry to change and become more acidic.

This spells trouble for marine animals that are now having difficulty building shells, growing and sometimes even surviving in increasingly corrosive waters. Damian Carrington Seafood is the critical source of protein for more than 2. Official catch data from FAO rarely includes small-scale, sport or illegal fishing and does not count fish discarded at sea.

A more exhaustive study, taking over a decade shows that the annual catches between and were much bigger than thought, but that the decline after the peak year of was much faster than official figures. The new research estimates the peak catch was million tons, but declined at 1.

ASTM International : Withdrawn Standards

The Medieval Warm Period MWP until about CE displays generally moist and warm climate conditions with minor fluctuations [stability], likely in response to variations in summer monsoon intensity. The three-partite period of the Little Ice Age LIA , shows hydrologically unstable conditions between and CE with remarkably colder periods, assigned to a prolonged seasonal ice cover.

The strengthened solar activity could be significantly amplified by the variations in ultraviolet radiation as well as clouds e. The model computes a new Dalton-type sunspot minimum from approximately to and a new Dalton-type period TSI minimum from approximately to Periods with many sunspots are associated with high solar activity and warm climate periods.

Abril J.M., Garcý a-Leon M., Garcý a-Tenorio R., Sanchez C.I. and El-Daoushy F. Dating of marine sediments by an incomplete mixing model.

Richard Cowen’s Chapter Eight: Leaving the Water – images – curent page , , to , , years ago Eurypterids, otherwise known as sea scorpions. Wikipedia Late Ordovician survivals and extinctions: There were no land animals and extinctions were confined to water life. There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart. The first of these began about million years ago. Together, these extinctions may have removed about 85 percent of species of marine animals. All of the major animal groups of the Ordovician oceans survived, including trilobites, brachiopods , corals, crinoids and graptolites, but each lost important members.

Widespread families of trilobites disappeared and graptolites came close to total extinction. Graptolites rock writing are thought to be horny skeletons of small creatures. Some are pictured here from the Observers Book of Geology , Their many different forms have enabled beds of ancient rock to be identified. The earliest graptolites appear in Cambrian rocks and the last in Carboniferous , , to , , years ago Silurian period.

Freshwater Fishes of Iran

The main goal of the research was to study the Pb pollution chronology. Dating of the core has allowed evaluating the time evolution of the gulf lead concentrations. Specific activities of Cs have also been measured in the sediment core sections as an independent confirmation of the chronology derived by the Pbex method.

Dating glacial sediments is important, and there are a variety of methods we can use, such as radiocarbon and cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating.

SHARE Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one. In the early s, a psychologist named J. Guilford was one of the first academic researchers who dared to conduct a study of creativity. He challenged research subjects to connect all nine dots using just four straight lines without lifting their pencils from the page. Today many people are familiar with this puzzle and its solution. In the s, however, very few were even aware of its existence, even though it had been around for almost a century.

If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square. The correct solution, however, requires you to draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots. Only 20 percent managed to break out of the illusory confinement and continue their lines in the white space surrounding the dots. The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box.

The idea went viral via s-era media and word of mouth, of course. Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box. Management consultants in the s and s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients. Because the solution is, in hindsight, deceptively simple, clients tended to admit they should have thought of it themselves.

Types of Eruptions